He began his career at Sorrento. In 2009 he was purchased by Juventus, but was not a regular player there, being loaned out to three different clubs before moving to Genoa in 2012. After a season there, he moved to Juventus' rivals Torino. In his only season at Torino, he won the Capocannoniere for top scorer in Serie A, with 22 goals in 33 games.
Immobile made his debut for the Italy national football team in 2014 and was included in their squad for that year's World Cup.
Immobile joined the Primavera (under-20) squad in 2009, where he formed a striking partnership with Ayub Daud that led the squad to win the 2009 Torneo di Viareggio, where he scored a total five goals; two of which came in the final.
On 14 March 2009, Immobile made his Serie A debut in a 4–1 home win against Bologna, replacing Juventus' captain Alessandro Del Piero in the 89th minute, in a game where his youth system teammate Daud also made his Serie A debut, replacing Sebastian Giovinco a minute earlier. On 25 November 2009, Immobile also made his debut in a European competition, again as a second-half substitute for Alessandro Del Piero in a Champions League game against Bordeaux. In February 2010, he scored a hat-trick against Empoli in the 2010 Torneo di Viareggio final to seal the title for a second consecutive season.
After Juventus he change some Seria A clubs like Siena, Genoa, Torino until he continue his career in Bundesliga.
On 2 June 2014 Immobile was sold to Bundesliga club Borussia Dortmund, despite the co-ownership agreement between Torino and Juventus not being resolved. Urbano Cairo, the president of Torino, accused Juventus and Dortmund of violating FIFA regulation regarding transfer on 10 May 2014, which FIGC also states that such transfers must have mutual consent of the co-owners. Cairo also wanted to keep Immobile for at least a season for sports and for profit. On 13 August 2014, Immobile officially appeared for Borussia Dortmund in the starting Forward position for the 2014 DFL-Supercup against Bayern Munich. The match ended in Borussia lifting the cup by the score of 2–0. On 18 June 2014, Juventus sold the remaining 50% registration rights of Immobile to Torino for €8 million.
On 23 August 2014, Immobile started in the Forward position for Borussia's opening match of their 2014-15 Bundesliga campaign which saw them losing 2–0 to Bayer Leverkusen at home. On 16 September 2014, Immobile scored his first goal for the club, opening a 2–0 home win over Arsenal in the group stages of the Champions League.
On 2 March 2014, he received his first call-up to the senior national team by Cesare Prandelli, for a friendly match against Spain three days later. He made his debut as a substitute with for Alessio Cerci after 69 minutes as Spain eventually won 1–0.
On 13 May 2014, Immobile was named in Italy's provisional 30-man squad for the 2014 FIFA World Cup, and on 1 June he was named in the final 23-man squad. On 8 June, he scored a hat-trick in the Azzurri's final World Cup warm-up match, a 5–3 defeat of Brazilian club side Fluminense. Immobile made his competitive debut in Italy's opening 2–1 win over England in Manaus on 14 June, playing the last 17 minutes in place of Mario Balotelli who scored the Italian winner. He scored his first international goal in the third minute of a 2-0 friendly victory against the Netherlands on 4 September 2014.
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